Congenital heart disease
defects are malformations of the heart or major blood vessels which are caused
by abnormal development of the foetus and which are present at birth. Some are
the consequence of
German measles (Rubella) or exposure to chemical poisons during pregnancy.
They occur in roughly 8 of 1000 live births in the developed countries. Almost
one-third of these patients are severely affected and subsequently
need surgical correction. The most common congenital heart disease are:
defect. It is an opening in the ventricular septum between the left and right
defect. It is an opening in the atrial septum between the left and right atria.
The paten forame ovale (normal communication between atria in the foetus’
atria during pregnancy) may persist as many as 15% of adults
Patent ductus arterous. It
is a patency of the vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta in
It is a narrowing of the pulmonic valve
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