Congenital heart disease

      Congenital defects are malformations of the heart or major blood vessels which are caused by abnormal development of the foetus and which are present at birth. Some are the consequence of  German measles (Rubella) or exposure to chemical poisons during pregnancy. They occur in roughly 8 of 1000 live births in the developed countries. Almost one-third of these patients are severely affected and subsequently  need surgical correction. The most common congenital heart disease are:

q       Ventricular septal defect. It is an opening in the ventricular septum between the left and right ventricles

q       Atrial septal defect. It is an opening in the atrial septum between the left and right atria. The paten forame ovale (normal communication between atria in the foetus’ atria during pregnancy) may persist as many as 15% of adults

q       Patent ductus arterous. It is a patency of the vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta in the foetus

q      Pulmonic stenosis. It is a narrowing of the pulmonic valve

The great progress in recent years in cardiovascular surgery has made it possible to correct many of these defects surgically.


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